Category Archives: New Zealand

Anti-fluoridation advertising deceptive

 Looks like the scientific fight-back against the misinformation coming from anti-fluoridation groups is having some success. This press release from the on-line Making Sense of Fluoride group.

The complaints and decisions can be found at:


Anti Fluoridation Advertisements Rejected by The Advertising Complaints Authority

Over the past week, the Advertising Complaints Authority (ASA) has upheld three complaints made against the anti fluoride group (Fluoride Action Network of NZ) FANNZ. The complaints involved several advertisements authorized by FANNZ and placed in the Kapiti News earlier this year. The newspaper that ran the advertisements, the Kapiti News stated that it had received many phone calls from agitated members of the public saying that the information provided by FANNZ was ‘wrong’.

After seeing these advertisements, Making Sense of Fluoride (MSOF) legal spokesperson, Christopher Atkinson contacted the ASA voicing his concern that they that were not factual and were likely to cause concern about the safety of community fluoridated water. Consequently, the ASA upheld Mr Atkinson’s complaints and ruled that the advertisements be removed.

MSoF warn the Kapiti Coast District Council that they are the latest Council to be targeted in a series of attacks from anti-fluoridation activists and urges the Council not take activists claims in face value.

Hamilton stopped fluoridating its water supply after pressure from anti fluoride activists in June last year. After a referendum was held, residents overwhelmingly voted for fluoridated water and the council backed down, reversing their decision.
It was only after the recent High Court case in Taranaki which affirmed the widely held view that community water fluoridation is a safe and effective public health measure and did not violate the Bill of Rights legislation, the Hamilton City Council voted to resume water fluoridation.

MSoF hope that Kapiti Coast District Council will not follow the Hamilton example and be pressured into decisions concerning public health by activists threatening legal action.

The online advocacy group Making Sense of Fluoride (MSoF) is a group of students, academics, medical professionals, and other concerned individuals advocating that this significant public health initiative either be maintained or introduced. They provide a forum to discuss all aspects surrounding this topic; fb.com/fluoridewater.

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An outdated tax anomaly – charitable status of relgion

Here is a New Zealand Kickstarter project well worth supporting – a film which sets out to answer the questions:

  • Why do religions pay few taxes?
  • Why do companies owned by religions also avoid tax?
  • With more non-believers than ever – is this fair?

Pennies from Heaven – A Documentary about religion and tax. by Toby Ricketts — Kickstarter.

The tax-free and rates-free  charitable status of religions in this day and age is an anomaly which will eventually need resolving.  As the proposal says:

Despite this huge rise in the number of non-believers and increased focus on the importance of separation of church and state, most ‘secular’ governments continue to subsidise religious organisations; providing them with broad tax immunity (including any companies or corporations that they own), local rates exemptions and other entitlements. While the public expectation is that all religions are behaving as charities in the traditional sense (working to relieve poverty and advance the public good, etc.), the reality is that some churches are behaving more like corporations; stockpiling cash and buying external investments (putting aside for the moment the mansions, sports cars and diamond rings sported by bishops and ministers). The result of this tax break for the religious is that there is less money for education, healthcare, conservation and other core state functions that would benefit a nation as a whole.”

The problem is highlighted in this report - Religious financial privileges in New Zealand.

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Is anyone listening?

anyone

Thanks to: Twitter / SonyKapoor: “Is this mic actually on?” ….

March ’14 – NZ blogs sitemeter ranking

behind_blog

Image Credit: SingleHop

There are now almost 300 blogs on the list, although I am weeding out those which are no longer active or have removed public access to sitemeters. (Let me know if I weed out yours by mistake, or get your stats wrong).

Every month I get queries from people wanting their own blog included. I encourage and am happy to respond to queries but have prepared a list of frequently asked questions (FAQs) people can check out. Have a look at NZ Blog Rankings FAQ. This is particularly helpful to those wondering how to set up sitemeters.

Please note, the system is automatic and relies on blogs having sitemeters which allow public access to the stats.

Here are the rankings of New Zealand blogs with publicly available statistics for March 2014. Ranking is by visit numbers. I have listed the blogs in the table below, together with monthly visits and page view numbers.

Meanwhile I am still keen to hear of any other blogs with publicly available sitemeter or visitor stats that I have missed. Contact me if you know of any or wish help adding publicly available stats to your bog.

You can see data for previous months at Blog Ranks

Subscribe to NZ Blog Rankings

Subscribe to NZ blog rankings by Email

Find out how to get Subscription & email updates

Continue reading

Fluoridation returns to Hamilton City.

referendums-being-ignored

The Hamilton City Council voted this afternoon to recommence fluoridating the city’s water supply

The vote was overwhelming - 9 for, 1 against. The overwhelming support for fluoridation in last year’s referendum was decisive in the decision.

There is a threat to bring legal action against the council – the Deputy Mayor’s comment on this – “Bring it on – a legal decision will decide for the whole country.”

See also:

Fluoride to return to Hamilton’s water supply
Hamilton votes to restart fluoridation
Fluoride back for Hamilton – Council backs the community response

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Dental fluorosis: badly misrepresented by FANNZ

Ideologically motivated political activists often make extreme claims. Perhaps they feel their claims will never be challenged because they are aimed at their own supporters. Sometimes I think it is because they just don’t get challenged enough by reasonable people.

I have previously shown examples of misrepresentation of science by local anti-fluoride activists (see Fluoride and heart disease – another myth , Anti-fluoridation porkies – Mullinex’s ratsFluoridation: the hip fracture deceptionAnatomy of an anti-fluoridation myth , Fluoridation – the IQ mythActivists peddle chemical misinformation for fluoridation referendaCherry picking fluoridation dataFluoride sensitivity – all in the mind?Fluoridation – topical confusionFluoridation – it does reduce tooth decayFluoridation – are we dumping toxic metals into our water supplies?).

Here’s another blatant example – their misrepresentation of dental fluorosis. In this case it involves knowingly using the wrong photographs while quoting a Ministry of Health (MoH) source on the subject. I have posted below both the official photographs used by the MoH and the photographs they were replaced with in the anti-fluoridation quote. This blatant misrepresentation occurs on the official website of the Fluoride Action Network of NZ (FANNZ).

But first, this is what I wrote about dental fluorosis in my exchange with Paul Connett. The graph illustrates the nature of dental fluorosis observed in New Zealand.

Proponents of fluoridation do acknowledge dental fluorosis in a negative, although minor, aspect of fluoridation.

Opponents of fluoridation will often quote high values of the incidence of fluorosis which ignore the fact that much of it is “questionable” and/or “very mild.” These grades are really only cosmetic and usually can only be detected by a professional. Opponents may also hide the fact that the incidence of fluorosis for children living in fluoridated may often be the same as, or only slightly greater than, the incidence for children living in non-fluoridated areas.

The graphs below shows the situation reported for New Zealand in the 2009 New Zealand Oral health Survey (see Our Oral Health).

Health experts have generally concluded that the apparent rise in the incidence of fluorosis is caused by increases in other forms of fluoride intake, such as from eating toothpaste, and not from fluoridated water.

Ministry of Health version

I am quoting here from the MoH website page - Infant formula and fluoridated water. This is the page FANNZ quoted from

Enamel fluorosis

Tooth enamel fluorosis is one of a range of changes to tooth enamel. Living in an area with fluoridated water can increase the mild white flecks or streaks in the tooth enamel.

The following photos provide examples of normal teeth and the types of mild to moderate diffuse enamel fluorosis that is most commonly associated with water fluoridation. The most recent New Zealand information indicates that about 29 percent of 9-year-old children in Southland who had always received fluoridated water had these changes to the tooth enamel. This level had not changed since several earlier studies undertaken in the 1980s. (Bold my stress)

normal-dental-enamel
Normal dental enamel
mild-diffuse-enamel-hypoplasia
Mild white spots on teeth – mild diffuse enamel hypoplasia
moderate-diffuse-enamel-hypoplasia
Mild white spots on teeth – moderate diffuse enamel hypoplasia
moderate-white-streaks

Moderate white streaks associated with enamel fluorosis

Other defects on teeth

Severe enamel fluorosis involves brownish defects to the tooth enamel which may also be pitted.

This form of enamel defect is uncommon in New Zealand. The most recent New Zealand information from 9-year-old children in Southland indicates that about 5 percent of children had similar defects.

These defects were just as common in children who had received fluoridated water as non-fluoridated water and the level of these defects had decreased about three fold from about 15 percent of children in the mid-1980s.

FANNZ version

The quote here is from the FANNZ website page Dental health.

Fluoridation causes dental fluorosis

Dental fluorosis is the outward sign that has a child has consumed too much fluoride – it is a bio-marker of over-exposure.  In New Zealand, dental fluorosis statistics are lacking, even though the Ministry of Health acknowledges this condition to be an undisputed side effect of fluoridation.

fluor_mild
Very mild fluorosis
fluor_mod
 Moderate fluorosis
dental_fluorosis_severe
Severe fluorosis
fluor_sev1
Severe fluorosis

According to the Ministry of Health*, “The most recent New Zealand information indicates that about 29 percent of 9-year-old children in Southland who had always received fluoridated water had these changes to the tooth enamel. This level had not changed since several earlier studies undertaken in the 1980s.” (Bold my stress).

* Note this link goes only to the MoH front page – not the page from which the quote was taken and which contains the photographs. Now, I wonder why the link isn’t direct?

So a blatant example of misrepresentation. Conscious misrepresentation at that because it involved substitution of the official photos by others. The intention was clearly to make the MoH seem to state that fluoridation causes severe fluorosis when the MoH clearly did not state that.

I really wonder how these people sleep straight in their bed at night.

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Corporate backers of anti-fluoride movement lose in NZ High Court.

HC-water

Image Credit: 3 News NZ

New Zealand anti-fluoride activists (and their industry backers) suffered a signficant blow with the release of a High Court Judgement on Friday. This Judgement found that all the arguments used by New Health NZ attempting to prevent fluoridation  of the water supplies in Patea and Waverly had failed.

Readers can download this 43 page judgement – I have included the Summary and Conclusions at the end of this post.

Not about the science

Commenters can easily slip into arguments this is a judgement on the scientific merits or problems of fluoridation. It isn’t.  Justice Rodney Hansen says:

[5] It is important to make it clear at the outset that this judgment is not required to pronounce on the merits of fluoridation. The issues I am required to address concern the power of a local body to fluoridate drinking water supply. That is a legal question which does not require me to canvass or express a view on the arguments for and against fluoridation.

The failed arguments put forward by New Health NZ did not relate to the science but to legal issues. Specifically they argued councils do not have the legal right to make decisions on fluoridation, or if they do this is a breach of the NZ Bill of Rights Act (NZBORA).

Justice Hansen’s judgment that councils do in fact have the right to make decisions on fluoridation is quite detailed – and well beyond my legal ability so I will not comment on it.

Medicine and the right to refuse

Justice Hansen’s  judgments on the NZBORA are clear to the layperson. Inclusion of medical treatment in the NZBORA “was a specific response to the atrocities of the Nazi concentration camps.” However:

[80] In my view, fluoridation cannot be relevantly distinguished from the addition of chlorine or any other substance for the purpose of disinfecting drinking water, a process which itself may lead to the addition of contaminants as the water standards themselves assume. Both processes involve adding a chemical compound to the water. Both are undertaken for the prevention of disease. It is not material that one works by adding something to the water while the other achieves its purpose by taking unwanted organisms out.

[81] The addition of iodine to salt, folic acid to bread and the pasteurisation of milk are, in my view, equivalent interventions made to achieve public health benefits by means which could not be achieved nearly as effectively by medicating the populace individually. . . . All are intended to improve the health of the populace. But they do not, in my view, constitute medical treatment for the purpose of s 11″ [the relevant section of the NZBORA].

Even if the “medication argument” was relevant the “right to refuse” is irrelevant for fluoridation:

“Provided it does not have consequences for public health a person has the right to make even the poorest decisions in respect of their own health. But where the state, either directly or through local government, employs public health interventions, the right is not engaged. Were it otherwise, the individual’s right to refuse would become the individual’s right to decide outcomes for others. It would give any person a right of veto over public health measures which it is not only the right but often the responsibility of local authorities to deliver.”

Appeal – the fly in the ointment?

In principle this should remove any legal or judicial questions that may have concerned councils. They should now be able to go ahead with fluoridation. The Hamilton City Council,  got itself into a mess last year by deciding to stop fluoridation and was then forced into allowing a referendum which showed almost 70% support for fluoridation. The Council delayed putting the referendum result into effect citing the High Court case. They should now have no excuse to ignore the referendum result.

Unfortunately, New Health NZ will appeal the judgment – and this give wriggle-room to anti-fluoridation councillors, and councillors worried they may still yet face costly legal action, to argue that fluoridation remain suspended.

And that is most probably their intention with the appeal. New Health NZ must realise that the thorough judgment really gives them no room to pursue their arguments. But tactically this appeal could continue the hiatus situation faced by Hamilton and other councils. A decision on the appeal could be delayed for another year or so – meanwhile a number of New Zealand cities could be denied the advantages of a well proven and safe social health measure.

That likely motive is politically cynical and I hope the appeal decision will award costs against New Health NZ for that reason. Mind you, a simple analysis of the links of New Health to the corporate interests of the “natural” health industry shows cost is not a problem for them.

The deep pockets of the anti-fluoridationists

A while back I described the links between New Health NZ and the “natural” health industry – see  Who is funding anti-fluoridation High Court action? Specifically, New Health NZ is a creation of the New Zealand Health Trust – a political lobby group financed by the “natural” health industry.

This trust is also registered as a charity – which means we are all subsidising their campaigns via their tax exempt status. (Their charitable status really needs challenging).

However, the financial returns available on the NZ Charities Register shows large grants to the trust which in effect pay for their legal expenses (see figure below for year ended 31 March 2013).

One report estimated the cost to the South Taranaki District Council of this High Court action was about $200,000. Relatively small change for the corporate funders of the NZ health Trust/New Health NZ – but certainly large enough to scare individual councillors.

The government should recognise that such a David vs Goliath situation gives an unfair advantage to these corporate interests. This, together with a highly motivated and organised group of anti-fluoride activists enables individual councils to be picked off one by one by a combination of political and financial pressure.

Most councils would prefer the responsibility of decisions on fluoridation be handed over to central government. The find the continual re-litigation of the issue by anti-fluoride activists frustrating, time-consuming and expensive. So far the current government has resisted these call. Perhaps, though, a useful interim step would be for central government to indemnify local bodies on the fluoridation issue.

This would remove the financial pressure of the sort used by the NZ Health Trust/New Health NZ on cash-strapped local councils.  The anti-fluoride movement would then be forced to deal with central bodies which have more substantial financial backing and better legal and scientific resources.


Judgement summary and conclusions

[116] New Health has challenged the Council’s decision to fluoridate the drinking water of Patea and Waverley on the grounds that:

(a) There was no legal power to do so.
(b) If there was power, its exercise by the Council was a breach of the right to refuse medical treatment in s 11 of NZBORA.
(c) In making the decision, the Council failed to take into account relevant considerations.

[117] I have rejected all grounds of challenge. I have concluded that there is implied power to fluoridate in the LGA [Local Government Act] 2002, as there had been in the antecedent legislation, the Municipal Corporations Act 1954 and the LGA 1974. The Health Act confirms that fluoride may be added to drinking water in accordance with drinking water standards issued under that Act. The power to fluoridate drinking water is not a regulatory function; it does not require express authority. Nor does a decision to fluoridate require the consent of the Minister of Health under the Medicines Act as water is not a food for the purpose of that Act.

[118] I have concluded that the fluoridation of water is not medical treatment for the purpose of s 11 of NZBORA [NZ Bill of Rights Act]. While I accept that fluoridation has a therapeutic purpose, I conclude that the means by which the purpose is effected does not constitute medical treatment. I am of the view that medical treatment is confined to direct interference with the body or state of mind of an individual and does not extend to public health interventions delivered to the inhabitants of a particular locality or the population at large. I see no material distinction between fluoridation and other established public health measures such as chlorination of water or the addition of iodine to salt.

[119] In the event that, contrary to my view, fluoridation does engage the right to refuse medical treatment, I discuss whether in terms of s 5 of NZBORA the power to fluoridate is a justified curtailment of the right to refuse medical treatment. I conclude that it is. The evidence relied on by the Council shows that the advantages of fluoridation significantly outweigh the mild fluorosis which is an accepted outcome of fluoridation.

[120] Finally, I examine whether the Council failed to take into account relevant considerations in reaching its decision. I am of the view that the Council was not required to take into account the controversial factual issues relied on by New Health. There is, nevertheless, a plenitude of evidence to show that the Council carefully considered the detailed submissions presented and reached its decision after anxious consideration of the evidence and careful deliberation.

Result

[121] New Health’s application to review the Council’s decision fails.

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February ’14 – NZ blogs sitemeter ranking

new-blog-kitten

Yes, we are interested in including your new blog in these rankings. Credit: The Health Culture

There are now almost 300 blogs on the list, although I am weeding out those which are no longer active or have removed public access to sitemeters. (Let me know if I weed out yours by mistake, or get your stats wrong).

Every month I get queries from people wanting their own blog included. I encourage and am happy to respond to queries but have prepared a list of frequently asked questions (FAQs) people can check out. Have a look at NZ Blog Rankings FAQ. This is particularly helpful to those wondering how to set up sitemeters.

Please note, the system is automatic and relies on blogs having sitemeters which allow public access to the stats.

Here are the rankings of New Zealand blogs with publicly available statistics for February 2014. Ranking is by visit numbers. I have listed the blogs in the table below, together with monthly visits and page view numbers.

Meanwhile I am still keen to hear of any other blogs with publicly available sitemeter or visitor stats that I have missed. Contact me if you know of any or wish help adding publicly available stats to your bog.

You can see data for previous months at Blog Ranks

Subscribe to NZ Blog Rankings

Subscribe to NZ blog rankings by Email

Find out how to get Subscription & email updates

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The fluoride debate – what do the experts say?

The impending High Court decision on the legality of fluoridation in Taranaki, and Paul Connett’s current speaking tour in New Zealand is bringing the fluoridation issue into the news again. New Zealand’s Science Media Centre (SMC) responded by conducting a Q&A with public health experts on fluoride. Here are the results.

Professor Barry Borman

Associate Director, Centre for Public Health Research, Massey University (with Ms Caroline Fyfe), responds:

Given the body of scientific evidence available, are you convinced that water fluoridation is an effective public health intervention?

“The overwhelming evidence from the peer-reviewed literature is that community water fluoridation is a highly effective and cost effective public health method for improving the oral health status of a population.”

What are the main benefits of fluoridation in New Zealand?

“Improving the oral health of the population, especially among those populations which have a poor oral health status, for example those on low incomes.”

What is at stake if more communities choose to end the practice?

“Depriving their local population of a cost effective method for improving (and/or maintaining) the oral health.”

Why do you think water fluoridation continues to be such a heatedly debated issue?

“Primarily because of the engrained views held by both the anti-fluoridation and pro-fluoridation groups, together with a lack of understanding and appropriate interpretation of the literature and nuances involved in the many studies. In many instances, results from the literature are used to support a view, but many of the studies have used poor study design, lack validity, and have varying degrees of bias. It is the validity of the study design that is critically important and not just the focus on the results.

“For example, a number of studies have been carried out in areas where the naturally occurring high levels of fluoride (eg, China and India) are well in excess of those used for community water fluoridation in New Zealand. Some studies adjust for the potential effects of all sources of fluoride, while others don’t, while some make an adjustment for differences between study and control population, while others don’t. The results from a recent meta-analysis showing a relationship between water fluoridation and children’s IQ have been widely used to support the position of the anti-fluoridation lobby, However, the study results have been shown to be flawed in a number of aspects (Borman B, Fyfe C. Fluoride and children’s IQ, NZ Med J, 2013).

“Much of the current confusion over community water fluoridation can also be attributed to the poor communication of the science by scientists.”

What should public health officials be doing to more effectively engage the public on this issue?

“Develop a greater understanding of the principles and techniques of risk communication and how a population perceives a risk to their health. The old adage remains: the things that scare people are not necessarily the things that kill or harm them.”

Professor Murray Thomson

Professor of Dental Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Otago, responds:

Given the body of scientific evidence available, are you convinced that water fluoridation is an effective public health intervention?

“Yes. It is important to remember that community water fluoridation is not a “magic bullet”, though; it will not eliminate tooth decay, but it will reduce it. How? Tooth decay begins as very small “etchings” of the dental enamel; these occur as dietary sugars are fermented (turned into weak acids) by bacteria within the plaque biofilm which forms on the tooth surface.

“Once those sugars have been used up, that demineralisation can be counterbalanced with subsequent remineralisation by calcium and phosphate ions from the saliva, slowly replacing the minerals which were lost. There is a continual cycling between demineralisation and remineralisation; the longer spent in the former, the greater the chance of a cavity. If fluoride is present, it not only enters the enamel, making it more resistant to acid attack, but it also inhibits demineralisation and the plaque bacteria.

“NZ evidence of fluoridation’s effectiveness has come from a number of studies which have shown that not only is decay experience lower among children living with community water fluoridation, but socio-economic inequalities are also lower. Data from our most recent national oral health survey provide evidence for a considerable effect in adults as well – and this effect is becoming more important as more and more Kiwis retain their teeth into old age. The benefits are there for Kiwis of all ages.”

What are the main benefits of fluoridation in New Zealand?

“Lower dental caries rates among children and adults alike. Fewer small children having to have teeth removed in hospital under a general anaesthetic. In area without community water fluoridation, children who do have to have that done present with more decay and at a younger age. Systematic reviews of the international evidence show that adults drinking fluoridated water have 27% less tooth decay experience. Given that the average middle-aged NZ adult has had 18 decayed, missing or filled teeth, that’s a difference of 4 teeth affected, on average.”

What is at stake if more communities choose to end the practice?

“There will be much more tooth decay, and that will have its greatest impact among people living in socio-economically deprived areas, as well as among Maori and Pacifika. It won’t happen overnight, of course, given the chronic, cumulative nature of the disease, but it will definitely get worse. Those who are opposed to community water fluoridation assert that we don’t need it: they argue that people can take fluoride tablets, brush with fluoride toothpaste and use mouthrinses if they want to use fluoride to prevent decay.”

“That’s all very well for the ‘worried well’ in the middle classes (who tend to have more positive self-care and health behaviours anyway), but it is neither feasible nor humane to leave the rest of the population to it. For example, we know from the 2009 national dental survey that only 59% of adults in the most deprived 20% of neighbourhoods brush their teeth twice daily with fluoride toothpaste. There is therefore a role for the State in preventing tooth decay in the NZ population: community water fluoridation remains the most efficient, effective and rational way to do it.”

Why do you think water fluoridation continues to be such a heatedly debated issue?

“There is a small but very vocal minority who have an anti-science, anti-public health agenda. They are very good at targeting the local body politicians who have to make the decision on whether to fluoridate or not. Being single-issue zealots, they have plenty of time and energy to do so. They are also funded well enough to bring overseas rhetoricians/polemicists into NZ periodically on speaking tours.”

What should public health officials be doing to more effectively engage the public on this issue?

“That’s a good question. The doggedness and sheer persistence of the anti-fluoride lobby means that public health officials could easily spend all of their time on the issue, but they actually have a plethora of more pressing, relevant public health issues to deal with, such as dental caries, tobacco, our alarming and rising obesity rates, and so on.” 


If you would like to contact a New Zealand expert about fluoride, please contact the SMC (04 499 5476; smc@sciencemediacentre.co.nz).


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January ’14 – NZ blogs sitemeter ranking

descartes_blogger[1]

Image credit:  Image from bLaugh 


UPDATE: Sorry, the data posted earlier today was old – now updated and hopefully correct. Apologies to early viewers.

Sorry this is a few days late – combination of Sitemeter playing silly buggers and me having family business taking me out of town.


There are now almost 300 blogs on the list, although I am weeding out those which are no longer active or have removed public access to sitemeters. (Let me know if I weed out yours by mistake, or get your stats wrong).

Every month I get queries from people wanting their own blog included. I encourage and am happy to respond to queries but have prepared a list of frequently asked questions (FAQs) people can check out. Have a look at NZ Blog Rankings FAQ. This is particularly helpful to those wondering how to set up sitemeters.

Please note, the system is automatic and relies on blogs having sitemeters which allow public access to the stats.

Here are the rankings of New Zealand blogs with publicly available statistics for January 2014. Ranking is by visit numbers. I have listed the blogs in the table below, together with monthly visits and page view numbers.

Meanwhile I am still keen to hear of any other blogs with publicly available sitemeter or visitor stats that I have missed. Contact me if you know of any or wish help adding publicly available stats to your bog.

You can see data for previous months at Blog Ranks

Subscribe to NZ Blog Rankings

Subscribe to NZ blog rankings by Email

Find out how to get Subscription & email updates

Image credit: Ryan Shell

Continue reading