Uncritical use of science to support a preconceived position is widespread – and it really gets up my nose. I have no respect for the person, often an activist, who uncritically cites a scientific report. Often they will cite a report which they have read only the abstract of – or not even that. Sometimes commenters will support their claims by producing “scientific evidence” which are simply lists of citations obtained from PubMed or Google Scholar.
[Yes, readers will recognise this is a common behaviour with anti-fluoride activists]
Unfortunately, this problem is not restricted to activists. Too often I read scientific papers with discussions where authors have simply cited studies that support, or they interpret as supporting, their own preconceived ideas or hypotheses. Compounding this scientific “sin” is the habit of some authors who completely refuse to cite, or even discuss, studies producing evidence that doesn’t fit their scientific prejudices.
Publication does not magically make scientific findings or ideas “true” – far from it. The serious reader of scientific literature must constantly remember that the chances are very high that published conclusions or findings are likely to be false. John Ioannidis makes this point in his article Why most published research findings are false. Ioannidis concentrates on the poor use, or misuse, of statistics. This is a constant problem in scientific writing – and it certainly underlines the fact that even scientists will consciously or unconsciously manipulate their data to confirm their biases. They are using statistical analysis in the way a drunk used a lamppost – for support rather than illumination.
Poor studies often used to fool policymakers
These problems are often not easily understood by scientists themselves but the situation is much worse for policymakers. They are not trained in science and don’t have the scientific or statistical experience required for a proper critically analysis of claims made to them by activists. Yet they are often called on to make decisions which rely on the acceptance, or rejection, of scientific claims (or, claims about the science).
An example of this is a draft (not peer-reviewed) paper by Grandjean et al – A Benchmark Dose Analysis for Maternal Pregnancy Urine-Fluoride and IQ in Children.
These authors have an anti-fluoride activists position and are campaigning against community water fluoridation (CWF). Their paper uses their own studies which report very poor and rare statistical relationships of child IQ with fluoride intake as “proof” of causation sufficiently strong to advocate for regulatory guidelines. Unsurprisingly their recommended guidelines are very low – much lower than those common with CWF.
Sadly, their sciencey sounding advocacy may convince some policymakers. It is important that policymakers be exposed to a critical analysis of these studies and their arguments. The authors will obviously not do this – they are selling their own biases. I hope that any regulator or policymaker required to make decisions on these recommendations have the sense to call for an independent, objective and critical analysis of the paper’s claims.
[Note: The purpose of the medRxiv preprints of non-peer-reviewed articles is to enable and invite discussion and comments that will help in revising the article. I submitted comments on the draft article over a month ago (Comments on “A Benchmark Dose Analysis for Maternal Pregnancy Urine-Fluoride and IQ in Children”) and have had no response from the authors. This lack of response to constructive critiques is, unfortunately, common for this group. I guess one can only comment that scientists are human.]
Observational studies – exploratory fishing expeditions
A big problem with published science today is that many studies are nothing more than observational exploratory studies using existing databases which, by their nature, cannot be used to derive causes. Yet that can easily be used to derive statistically significant links or relationships. These can be used to write scientific papers but they are simply not evidence of causes.
Properly designed studies, with proper controls and randomised populations properly representing different groups, may provide reasonable evidence of causal relationships – but most reported studies are not like this. Most observational studies use existing databases with non-random populations where selection and confounding with other factors is a huge problem. Authors are often silent about selection problems and may claim to control for important confounding factors, but it is impossible to include all confounders. The databases used may not include data for relevant confounders and authors themselves may not properly select all relevant confounders for inclusion.
This sort of situation makes some degree of data mining likely., This occurs when a number of different variables and measures of outcomes are considered in the search for statistically significant relationships. Jim Frost illustrated the problems with this sort of approach. Using a set of completely fictitious random data he was able to obtain a statistically significant relationship with very low p values and R-squared values showing the explanation of 61% of the variance (see Jim Frost – Regression Analysis: An Intuitive Guide).
That is the problem with observational studies where some degree of data mining is often involved. It is possible to find relationships wich look good, have low p-values and relatively high R-squared values, but are entirely meaningless. They represent nothing.
So readers and users of science should beware. The findings they are given may be completely false or contradictory. or at least meaningless in quantitative terms (as is the case with the relationships produced by the Grandjean et al 2020 group discussed above).
A recent scientific article provides a practical example of this problem. Different authors used the same surgical database but produced complete opposite findings (see Childers et al: 2020). Same Data, Opposite Results?: A Call to Improve Surgical Database Research). By themselves each study may have looked convincing. Both used the same large database from the same year. Over 10,000 samples were used in both cases and both studies were published in the same journal within a few months. However, the inclusion and exclusion criteria used were different. Large numbers of possible covariates were considered but these differed. Similarly, different outcome measures were used.
Readers interested in the details can read the original study or a Sceptical Scalpel blog article Dangerous pitfalls of database research. However, Childers et al (2020) describe how the number of these sort of observational studies “has exploded over the past decade.” As they say:
“The reasons for this growth are clear: these sources are easily accessible, can be imported into statistical programs within minutes, and offer opportunities to answer a diverse breadth of questions.”
“With increased use of database research, greater caution must be
exercised in terms of how it is performed and documented.”
“. . . because the data are observational, they may be prone to bias from selection
Problems for policymakers and regulators
Given that many scientists do not have the statistical expertise to properly assess published scientific findings it is understandable for policymakers or regulators to be at a loss unless they have proper expert advice. However, it is important that policymakers obtain objective, critical advice and not simply rely on the advocates who may well have scientific degrees. Qualifications by themselves are not evidence of objectivity and, undoubtedly, we often do face situations where scientists become advocates for a cause.
I think policymakers should consciously seek out a range of scientific expert advice, recognising that not all scientists are objective. Given the nature of current observational research, its use of existing databases and the ease with which researchers can obtain statistically significant relationships I also think policymakers should consciously seek the input of statisticians when they seek help in interpreting the science.
Surely they owe this to the people they represent.